We are now, simply, Redis
Count-min sketch (also called CM sketch) is a probabilistic data structure that’s extremely useful once you grasp how it works and, more importantly, how to use it.
Fortunately, CM sketch’s simple characteristics make it relatively easy for novices to understand (turns out many of my friends were unable to follow along with last month’s Top-K blog).
CM sketch has been a Redis module for several years and was recently rewritten as part of the RedisBloom module v2.0. But before we dive into CM sketch, it is important to understand why you’d use any probabilistic data structure. In the triangle of speed, space, and accuracy, probabilistic data structures sacrifice some accuracy to gain space—potentially a lot of space! The effect on speed varies based on algorithms and set sizes.
The right probabilistic data structure allows you to keep only part of the information in your dataset in exchange for reduced accuracy. Of course, in many cases (bank accounts, for example), reduced accuracy is unacceptable. But for recommending a movie or showing ads to website users, the cost of a relatively rare mistake is low and the space savings could be substantial.
Basically, CM sketch works by aggregating the count of all items in your dataset into several counter arrays. Upon a query, it returns the item’s minimum count of all arrays, which promises to minimize the count inflation caused by collisions. Items with a low appearance rate or score (“mouse flows”) have a count below the error rate, so you lose any data about their real count and they are treated as noise. Items with a high appearance rate or score (“elephant flows”), simply use the count received. Considering CM sketch’s size is constant and it can be used for an infinite number of items, you can see the potential for huge savings in storage space.
For background, sketches are a class of data structures and their accompanying algorithms. They capture the nature of your data in order to answer questions about it, while using constant or sublinear space. CM sketch was described by Graham Cormode and S. Muthu Muthukrishnan in a 2005 paper called “An Improved Data Stream Summary: The Count-Min Sketch and its Applications.”
CM sketch uses several arrays of counters to support its primary use cases. Let’s call the number of arrays “depth” and the number of counters in each array “width.”
Whenever we receive an item, we use a hash function (which turns an element—a word, sentence, number, or binary—into a number that can be used as a location in the set/array or as a fingerprint) to calculate the location of the item and increase that counter for each array. Each of the associated counters has a value equal to or higher than the real value of the item. When we make an inquiry, we go through all the arrays with the same hash functions and fetch the counter associated with our item. We then return the minimum value we encountered, since we know our values are inflated (or equal).
Even though we know that many items contribute to most counters, because of natural collisions (when different items receive the same location), we accept the ‘noise’ as long as it remains within our desired error rate.
Now that we understand the behavior of CM sketch, what can we do with this little beast? Here are some common use cases:
In RedisBloom, the API for CM sketch is simple and easy:
The following commands were used to create the animated example at the top of this post:
As you can see, the value of ‘Redis’ is 4 instead of 3. This behavior is expected, since in CM sketch, the count of an item is likely to be inflated.
If you enjoyed this post or want to know more about probabilistic data structures, please feel free to contact me.