In basic terms, append-only log files keep a record of data changes that occur by writing each change to the end of the file. In doing this, anyone could recover the entire dataset by replaying the append-only log from the beginning to the end. Redis has functionality that does this as well, and it’s enabled by setting the configuration option appendonly yes, as shown in listing 4.1. Table 4.1 shows the appendfsync options and how they affect file-write syncing to disk.
FILE SYNCINGWhen writing files to disk, at least three things occur. The first is writing to a buffer, and this occurs when calling file.write() or its equivalent in other languages. When the data is in the buffer, the operating system can take that data and write it to disk at some point in the future. We can optionally take a second step and ask the operating system to write the data provided to disk when it next has a chance, with file.flush(), but this is only a request. Because data isn’t actually on disk until the operating system writes it to disk, we can tell the operating system to “sync” the files to disk, which will block until it’s completed. When that sync is completed, we can be fairly certain that our data is on disk and we can read it later if the system otherwise fails.
|Option||How often syncing will occur|
|always||Every write command to Redis results in a write to disk. This slows Redis down substantially if used.|
|everysec||Once per second, explicitly syncs write commands to disk.|
|no||Lets the operating system control syncing to disk.|
If we were to set appendfsync always, every write to Redis would result in a write to disk, and we can ensure minimal data loss if Redis were to crash. Unfortunately, because we’re writing to disk with every write to Redis, we’re limited by disk performance, which is roughly 200 writes/second for a spinning disk, and maybe a few tens of thousands for an SSD (a solid-state drive).
WARNING: SSDS AND appendfsync always You’ll want to be careful if you’re using SSDs with appendfsync always. Writing every change to disk as they happen, instead of letting the operating system group writes together as is the case with the other appendfsync options, has the potential to cause an extreme form of what is known as write amplification. By writing small amounts of data to the end of a file, you can reduce the lifetime of SSDs from years to just a few months in some cases.
As a reasonable compromise between keeping data safe and keeping our write performance high, we can also set appendfsync everysec. This configuration will sync the append-only log once every second. For most common uses, we’ll likely not find significant performance penalties for syncing to disk every second compared to not using any sort of persistence. By syncing to disk every second, if the system were to crash, we could lose at most one second of data that had been written or updated in Redis. Also, in the case where the disk is unable to keep up with the write volume that’s happening, Redis would gracefully slow down to accommodate the maximum write rate of the drive.
As you may guess, when setting appendfsync no, Redis doesn’t perform any explicit file syncing, leaving everything up to the operating system. There should be no performance penalties in this case, though if the system were to crash in one way or another, we’d lose an unknown and unpredictable amount of data. And if we’re using a hard drive that isn’t fast enough for our write load, Redis would perform fine until the buffers to write data to disk were filled, at which point Redis would get very slow as it got blocked from writing. For these reasons, I generally discourage the use of this configuration option, and include its description and semantics here for completeness.
Append-only files are flexible, offering a variety of options to ensure that almost every level of paranoia can be addressed. But there’s a dark side to AOF persistence, and that is file size.
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