1.2.2 Lists in Redis

  • Redis in Action – Home
  • Foreword
  • Preface
  • Part 1: Getting Started
  • Part 2: Core concepts
  • 1.3.1 Voting on articles
  • 1.3.2 Posting and fetching articles
  • 1.3.3 Grouping articles
  • 4.2.1 Configuring Redis for replication
  • 4.2.2 Redis replication startup process
  • 4.2.3 Master/slave chains
  • 4.2.4 Verifying disk writes
  • 5.1 Logging to Redis
  • 5.2 Counters and statistics
  • 5.3 IP-to-city and -country lookup
  • 5.4 Service discovery and configuration
  • 5.1.1 Recent logs
  • 5.1.2 Common logs
  • 5.2.2 Storing statistics in Redis
  • 5.3.1 Loading the location tables
  • 5.3.2 Looking up cities
  • 5.4.1 Using Redis to store configuration information
  • 5.4.2 One Redis server per application component
  • 5.4.3 Automatic Redis connection management
  • 8.1.1 User information
  • 8.1.2 Status messages
  • 9.1.1 The ziplist representation
  • 9.1.2 The intset encoding for SETs
  • Chapter 10: Scaling Redis
  • Chapter 11: Scripting Redis with Lua
  • 10.1 Scaling reads
  • 10.2 Scaling writes and memory capacity
  • 10.3 Scaling complex queries
  • 10.2.2 Creating a server-sharded connection decorator
  • 10.3.1 Scaling search query volume
  • 10.3.2 Scaling search index size
  • 10.3.3 Scaling a social network
  • 11.1.1 Loading Lua scripts into Redis
  • 11.1.2 Creating a new status message
  • 11.2 Rewriting locks and semaphores with Lua
  • 11.3 Doing away with WATCH/MULTI/EXEC
  • 11.4 Sharding LISTs with Lua
  • 11.5 Summary
  • 11.2.1 Why locks in Lua?
  • 11.2.2 Rewriting our lock
  • 11.2.3 Counting semaphores in Lua
  • 11.4.1 Structuring a sharded LIST
  • 11.4.2 Pushing items onto the sharded LIST
  • 11.4.4 Performing blocking pops from the sharded LIST
  • A.1 Installation on Debian or Ubuntu Linux
  • A.2 Installing on OS X
  • B.1 Forums for help
  • B.4 Data visualization and recording
  • Buy the paperback
  • Redis in Action – Home
  • Foreword
  • Preface
  • Part 1: Getting Started
  • Part 2: Core concepts
  • 1.3.1 Voting on articles
  • 1.3.2 Posting and fetching articles
  • 1.3.3 Grouping articles
  • 4.2.1 Configuring Redis for replication
  • 4.2.2 Redis replication startup process
  • 4.2.3 Master/slave chains
  • 4.2.4 Verifying disk writes
  • 5.1 Logging to Redis
  • 5.2 Counters and statistics
  • 5.3 IP-to-city and -country lookup
  • 5.4 Service discovery and configuration
  • 5.1.1 Recent logs
  • 5.1.2 Common logs
  • 5.2.2 Storing statistics in Redis
  • 5.3.1 Loading the location tables
  • 5.3.2 Looking up cities
  • 5.4.1 Using Redis to store configuration information
  • 5.4.2 One Redis server per application component
  • 5.4.3 Automatic Redis connection management
  • 8.1.1 User information
  • 8.1.2 Status messages
  • 9.1.1 The ziplist representation
  • 9.1.2 The intset encoding for SETs
  • Chapter 10: Scaling Redis
  • Chapter 11: Scripting Redis with Lua
  • 10.1 Scaling reads
  • 10.2 Scaling writes and memory capacity
  • 10.3 Scaling complex queries
  • 10.2.2 Creating a server-sharded connection decorator
  • 10.3.1 Scaling search query volume
  • 10.3.2 Scaling search index size
  • 10.3.3 Scaling a social network
  • 11.1.1 Loading Lua scripts into Redis
  • 11.1.2 Creating a new status message
  • 11.2 Rewriting locks and semaphores with Lua
  • 11.3 Doing away with WATCH/MULTI/EXEC
  • 11.4 Sharding LISTs with Lua
  • 11.5 Summary
  • 11.2.1 Why locks in Lua?
  • 11.2.2 Rewriting our lock
  • 11.2.3 Counting semaphores in Lua
  • 11.4.1 Structuring a sharded LIST
  • 11.4.2 Pushing items onto the sharded LIST
  • 11.4.4 Performing blocking pops from the sharded LIST
  • A.1 Installation on Debian or Ubuntu Linux
  • A.2 Installing on OS X
  • B.1 Forums for help
  • B.4 Data visualization and recording
  • Buy the paperback

    1.2.2 Lists in Redis

    Redis List
    Figure 1.2An example of a LIST with three items under the key, list-key. Note that item can be in the list more than once.

    Redis Lists

    Redis lists are lists of strings, sorted by insertion order.  It’s possible to add elements to a Redis list by pushing items to the front and back of the list with LPUSH/RPUSH and can pop items from the front and back of the list with LPOP/RPOP.

    In the world of key-value stores, Redis is unique in that it supports a linked-list structure. LISTs in Redis store an ordered sequence of strings, and like STRINGs, I represent figures of LISTs as a labeled box with list items inside. An example of a LIST can be seen in figure 1.2.

    The operations that can be performed on LISTs are typical of what we find in almost any programming language. We can push items to the front and the back of the LIST with LPUSH/RPUSH; we can pop items from the front and back of the list with LPOP/RPOP; we can fetch an item at a given position with LINDEX; and we can fetch a range of items with LRANGE. Let’s continue our Redis client interactions by following along with interactions on LISTs, as shown in listing 1.2. Table 1.4 gives a brief description of the commands we can use on lists.

    Table 1.4 Commands used on LIST values
    Command What it does
    RPUSH Pushes the value onto the right end of the list
    LRANGE Fetches a range of values from the list
    LINDEX Fetches an item at a given position in the list
    LPOP Pops the value from the left end of the list and returns it
    Listing 1.2
    The RPUSH, LRANGE, LINDEX, and LPOP commands in Redis
    redis 127.0.0.1:6379> rpush list-key item
    (integer) 1
    redis 127.0.0.1:6379> rpush list-key item2
    (integer) 2
    redis 127.0.0.1:6379> rpush list-key item
    (integer) 3
    

    When we push items onto a LIST, the command returns the current length of the list.

    redis 127.0.0.1:6379> lrange list-key 0 -1
    1) "item"
    2) "item2"
    3) "item"
    

    We can fetch the entire list by passing a range of 0 for the start index and -1 for the last index.

    redis 127.0.0.1:6379> lindex list-key 1
    "item2"
    

    We can fetch individual items from the list with LINDEX.

    redis 127.0.0.1:6379> lpop list-key
    "item"
    redis 127.0.0.1:6379> lrange list-key 0 -1
    1) "item2"
    2) "item"
    

    Popping an item from the list makes it no longer available.

    redis 127.0.0.1:6379>
    

    Even if that was all that we could do with LISTs, Redis would already be a useful platform for solving a variety of problems. But we can also remove items, insert items in the middle, trim the list to be a particular size (discarding items from one or both ends), and more. We’ll talk about many of those commands in chapter 3, but for now let’s keep going to see what SETs can offer us.